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High White Blood Cell Count Abdominal Pain

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How Is Peritonitis Diagnosed

Leukocytosis Case Study: Lab Interpretation for Nurse Practitioners

If youre on peritoneal dialysis, your doctor may be able to diagnose peritonitis simply by your signs and symptoms, particularly if you are experiencing cloudy dialysis fluid.

If your doctor needs further confirmation or if the infection may be a result of other medical conditions, your doctor will most likely perform a physical exam of your abdomen to feel if it is unusually tender or firm.

Your healthcare provider may also conduct one or more of these tests:

Peritoneal fluid analysis is done by using a thin needle to take a sample of the fluid in your peritoneum. An elevated white blood cell count in the fluid may indicate an infection or inflammation, and a culture of the fluid may also indicate if bacteria are present.

Blood tests can also reveal if you have a high white blood cell count, and a blood culture can determine if there are bacteria in your blood.

Imaging tests

Can Cholecystitis Go Away On Its Own

Although it is possible for cholecystitis to resolve on its own, any improvement is likely only temporary. If the cause is the gallbladder, a person will usually need to undergo the removal of this organ. Regardless of the cause, a person may wish to receive treatment to rule out other serious underlying conditions and prevent complications.

Symptoms Caused By High Numbers Of Leukemia Cells

The cancer cells in AML are bigger than normal white blood cells and have more trouble going through tiny blood vessels. If the blast count gets very high, these cells can clog up blood vessels and make it hard for normal red blood cells to get to tissues. This is called leukostasis. Leukostasis is rare, but it is a medical emergency that needs to be treated right away. Some of the symptoms are like those seen with a stroke, and include:

  • Weakness in one side of the body

When blood vessels in the lungs are affected, people can have shortness of breath. Blood vessels in the eye can be affected as well, leading to blurry vision or even loss of vision.

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Distribution Of Crp Levels And Wbc Count In Urgent And Nonurgent Causes

In 2783 of the 2961 patients , CRP levels had been determined during ED evaluation, and WBC count in 2636 patients . For 2458 of 2962 patients , both CRP levels and WBC count were available. The distribution of CRP levels and WBC count is depicted in Figures Figures22 and and3.3. The median CRP and WBC values were raised above the reference value in patients in the urgent group, whereas in the nonurgent group, the median CRP and WBC values were within the normal range .2). The median CRP level was significantly higher in the urgent group, 46.0mg/L compared with 9.8mg/L in the nonurgent group . The median WBC count was also significantly higher in the urgent group compared with the nonurgent group .

Box plot of the distribution of values of white blood cell count in patients with urgent versus nonurgent diagnoses .

Study Selection And Patients

Wbc In Stool Causes

Three large prospective cohort studies of patients with acute abdominal pain at the ED were identified by a literature search.3,5,14 Principal investigators of eligible studies were invited to participate by e-mail. The investigators were asked to share their complete dataset in original format with complete, anonymous data. All received data were carefully examined for inconsistencies between the data and their original studies. Received data were converted and recoded into a uniform format. A separate data dictionary of each study was requested to prevent errors in conversion of the individual studies to one uniform format. Issues or inconsistencies were checked with the principal investigators. Full study design of the included studies is described in the original publications.3,5,14 All studies were approved by the institutional review board of the initiating center.

In each study, a final diagnosis had been assigned to patients by an expert panel. The final diagnosis was based on all available data, including at least 3 months of follow-up and, if available, histopathology, imaging, or surgery reports.

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What Happens If The Appendix Ruptures

On occasion, a person may not see their doctor until appendicitis with rupture has been present for many days or even weeks. In this situation, an abscess usually has formed, and the appendiceal perforation may have closed over.

If the abscess is small, it initially can be treated with antibiotics however, an abscess usually requires drainage. A drain usually is inserted through the skin and into the abscess with the aid of an ultrasound or CT scan that can determine the exact location of the abscess. The drain allows pus to flow from the abscess out of the body.

The appendix may be removed several weeks or months after the abscess has resolved. This is called an interval appendectomy and is done to prevent a second attack of appendicitis.

How Is Leukocytosis Diagnosed

Your healthcare provider will perform an exam and ask about your symptoms and medical history. Theyll also order a complete blood count . This common blood test checks for red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in your blood. A CBC can tell your healthcare provider if you have certain conditions or infections. In some cases, you might need a bone marrow test to confirm your diagnosis.

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Pediatric Abdominal Pain: Its Not Always Just A Tummy Ache

Pediatric abdominal pain: Its not always just a tummy ache

By Stephan R. Paul, MD, JD, White & Williams LLP, Philadelphia

Editors note: This article completes a four-part series on abdominal pain that began with the January issue of ED Legal Letter. The first two parts outlined risk management strategies for dealing with adult abdominal pain. The third part detailed obstetric emergencies and the difficulty in caring for both mother and unborn child. This concluding segment will review the evaluation and management of pediatric abdominal pain. Emergency department presentations of pediatric abdominal pain may range from an innocuous illness, such as gastroenteritis, to life-threatening emergencies such as intestinal volvulus. This months issue will remind emergency practitioners of the hidden diagnosis that may be discovered in children presenting with abdominal pain.


One of the most common complaints of children coming to the ED is abdominal pain. Because abdominal pain can be a symptom of multiple diseases, it is important for the emergency physician to be able to distinguish between mild nonspecific illnesses and catastrophic surgical emergencies. A misdiagnosis of abdominal pain leading to severe sequelae in the child is a frequent cause of litigation.





Abdominal Pain in the Adolescent Female


Intestinal Obstruction in Infants and Children


Meckels Diverticulum

Incarcerated Hernias

About White Blood Cells

Elevated White Blood Count (how to approach)

White blood cells, medically referred to as leukocytes, are an essential component of the immune system that helps the body fight against infections.1 White blood cells are found in the blood, which allows them to circulate throughout the body and easily reach areas of infection.2 White blood cells can be further divided into subcategories: neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and basophils.1 Each subcategory has its own specialised role that contributes to the overall function of white blood cells.

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What Is Stump Appendicitis

When the appendix is removed surgically, a small portion may be left behind. This piece of appendix may become inflamed and is prone to develop all of the complications of appendicitis. Thus, it is possible for individuals who have had their appendix “removed” to develop another episode of appendicitis. Stump appendicitis is treated similarly to appendicitis with an intact appendix. It is important to consider early and diagnose stump appendicitis since inadequate diagnosis and treatment can result in a rupture of the inflamed stump.

What Is A White Blood Cell In Stool Test

This test looks for white blood cells, also known as leukocytes, in your stool. White blood cells are part of the immune system. They help your body fight off infections and other diseases. If you have leukocytes in your stool, it can be a sign of a bacterial infection that affects the digestive system. These include:

  • Clostridium difficile , an infection that most often happens after someone takes antibiotics. Some people with C. diff could develop life-threatening inflammation of the large intestine. It mostly affects older adults.
  • Shigellosis, an infection of the lining of the intestine. It is spread by direct contact with the bacteria in the stool. This can happen if an infected person doesn’t wash their hands after using the bathroom. The bacteria can then be passed in food or water that this person handles. It mostly affects children under the age of 5.
  • Salmonella, a bacteria mostly found in undercooked meat, poultry, dairy, and seafood, and inside eggs. You can get the disease if you eat contaminated food.
  • Campylobacter, a bacteria found in raw or undercooked chicken. It can also be found in unpasteurized milk and contaminated water. You can get the disease by eating or drinking contaminated food.

Leukocytes in stool can also be a sign of inflammatory bowel disease . IBD is a type of chronic disorder that causes inflammation in the digestive system. Common types of IBD include ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

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How Polycythaemia Is Diagnosed

Polycythaemia can be diagnosed by carrying out a blood test to check:

  • the number of red blood cells in your blood
  • the amount of space the red blood cells take up in the blood

A high concentration of red blood cells suggests you have polycythaemia.

Your GP may have ordered a blood test because you reported some of the above symptoms or complications.

But polycythaemia is sometimes only discovered during a routine blood test for another reason.

Your GP may refer you to a haematologist for more tests, to confirm the diagnosis and to work out the underlying cause.

These may include a blood test to look for the faulty JAK2 gene and an ultrasound scan of your abdomen to look for problems in your kidneys.

Research And Statistics: How Many People Have Peritonitis

Kidney Stones Cause Elevated White Blood Cell Count

Little research exists examining the total number of peritonitis cases that occur each year.

Still, a 2014 paper published in the journal Peritoneal Dialysis International suggests the rate of peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis has declined over the past few decades. According to the researchers, incidence of peritonitis in this patient population in the United States in the 1980s and early 1990s averaged 1.1 to 1.3 episodes per year of treatment. After the year 2000, many centers have reported 0.2 to 0.6 episodes per year of treatment.

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High White Blood Cell Count During Pregnancy

White blood cell levels increase significantly during healthy pregnancy because of the physical stress the body endures during this time. The levels start to rise within the first trimester and continue to rise into the third trimester.

During labor and in the hours following delivery, white blood cell levels may surge again, to between white blood cells in every microliter of blood. This is in response to the physical stresses and trauma of labor.

Within 6â8 weeks of delivery, white blood cells return to their normal levels.

Production Maturation And Survival Of Leukocytes

Common progenitor cells, referred to as stem cells, are located in the bone marrow and give rise to erythroblasts, myeloblasts and megakaryoblasts. Three quarters of the nucleated cells in the bone marrow are committed to the production of leukocytes. These stem cells proliferate and differentiate into granulocytes , monocytes and lymphocytes, which together comprise the absolute white blood cell count. Approximately 1.6 billion granulocytes per kg of body weight are produced each day, and 50 to 75 percent of these cells are neutrophils.2 An abnormal elevation in the neutrophil count occurs much more commonly than an increase in eosinophils or basophils.

The maturation of white blood cells in the bone marrow and their release into the circulation are influenced by colony-stimulating factors, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor and complement components.3 Approximately 90 percent of white blood cells remain in storage in the bone marrow, 2 to 3 percent are circulating and 7 to 8 percent are located in tissue compartments.

The cells within the bone marrow compartment are classified into two populations: those that are in the process of DNA synthesis and maturation and those that are in a storage phase awaiting release into the circulating pool. The storage of maturing cells allows for rapid response to the demand for increased white blood cells, with a two- to threefold increase in circulating leukocytes possible in just four to five hours.

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How To Treat A High White Cell Count

When a high white cell count is caused by an infection that is resolving on its own, as is the case with most viral infections, no medical intervention is needed beyond symptomatic treatment .

Your healthcare provider may suggest ways to relieve the symptoms of the underlying condition that is causing the elevated white cell count. These treatments include:

These treatments may help you feel better, but they might not lower your white blood cell count.

Other treatments that may be needed to treat the underlying condition include:

  • Steroids or immunosuppressants for autoimmune diseases or inflammatory disorders
  • Chemotherapy or radiation therapy for blood cancer
  • Bone marrow transplant for some types of blood cancer
  • Antibiotics or other medications to treat an infection thats causing a high white cell count

Some conditions, such as the autoimmune diseases rheumatoid arthritis and lupus or inflammatory bowel disease , may require ongoing therapy.

What Is Confined Appendicitis

Leukocytosis, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

There is a small group of patients in whom the inflammation and infection of appendicitis remain mild and localized to a small area. The body is able not only to contain the inflammation and infection but to resolve them as well. These patients usually are not very ill and improve during several days of observation. This type of appendicitis is referred to as “confined appendicitis” and may be treated with antibiotics alone. The appendix may or may not be removed later. There is still some controversy, however, about leaving the healed appendix in place since appendicitis can recur.

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What Tests Are Used To Diagnose Appendicitis

The diagnosis of appendicitis begins with a thorough history and physical examination. Patients often have an elevated temperature, and there usually will be moderate to severe tenderness in the right lower abdomen when the doctor pushes there. If inflammation has spread to the peritoneum, there is frequently rebound tenderness. Rebound tenderness is pain that is worse when the doctor quickly releases his or her hand after gently pressing on the abdomen over the area of tenderness. It is due to the sudden rebound of the peritoneum after it has been deformed by finger pressure.

White blood cell count

The white blood cell count usually becomes elevated with infection. In early appendicitis, before infection sets in, it can be normal, but most often there is at least a mild elevation even early in the process. Unfortunately, appendicitis is not the only condition that causes elevated white blood cell counts. Almost any infection or inflammation can cause the count to be abnormally high. Therefore, an elevated white blood cell count alone cannot be used to confirm a diagnosis of appendicitis.


Why Is It Difficult To Diagnose Appendicitis

It can be difficult to diagnose appendicitis. The position of the appendix in the abdomen may vary. Most of the time the appendix is in the right lower abdomen, but the appendix, like other parts of the intestine, has a mesentery. This mesentery is a sheet-like membrane that attaches the appendix to other structures within the abdomen. If the mesentery is large, the appendix to move around. In addition, the appendix may be longer than normal. The combination of a large mesentery and a long appendix allows the appendix to dip down into the pelvis . It also may allow the appendix to move behind the colon . In either case, inflammation of the appendix may appear to be more like the inflammation of other organs, for example, of a woman’s pelvic organs.

The diagnosis of appendicitis also can be difficult because other inflammatory problems may mimic appendicitis, for example, right side diverticulitis. Therefore, it is common to observe patients with suspected appendicitis for a period to see if the problem will resolve on its own or develop characteristics that more strongly suggest appendicitis or, perhaps, another condition.

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Causes Of A High White Cell Count

Infections cause a high white blood cell count because these cells are the bodys way of eliminating infectious organismsviruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.

Many medical conditions are also associated with a high white blood cell count, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, cancer, and bone marrow disorders.

When white blood cells are active, they can have several effects. These include:

  • Releasing enzymes that raise the temperature, which causes warmth or fever and sweats
  • Causing blood vessels to widen and become leaky, which causes redness and swelling
  • Accumulating in certain areas of the body, such as forming an abscess

Symptoms Caused By Low Numbers Of Blood Cells

Renal Infections

Many signs and symptoms of AML are the result of a shortage of normal blood cells, which happens when the leukemia cells crowd out the normal blood-making cells in the bone marrow. As a result, people don’t have enough normal red blood cells, white blood cells, and blood platelets. These shortages show up on blood tests, and they can also cause symptoms.

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